955 Black Drive • Prescott, AZ 86305
3262 Windsong • Prescott Valley, AZ 86314
928-445-SKIN (7546)
SunWest Dermatology & Cancer Treatment Center, Prescott, AZ
Richard Cirelli M.D.

Skin Care - Extrinsic (External) Aging

Jump down to...
The Sun
Facial Expressions
Gravity
Sleeping Positions
Smoking

A number of extrinsic, or external, factors often act together with the normal aging process to prematurely age our skin. Most premature aging is caused by sun exposure. Other external factors that prematurely age our skin are repetitive facial expressions, gravity, sleeping positions, and smoking.

The Sun. Without protection from the sun's rays, just a few minutes of exposure each day over the years can cause noticeable changes to the skin. Freckles, age spots, spider veins on the face, rough and leathery skin, fine wrinkles that disappear when stretched, loose skin, a blotchy complexion, actinic keratoses (thick wart-like, rough, reddish patches of skin), and skin cancer can all be traced to sun exposure.

"Photoaging" is the term dermatologists use to describe this type of aging caused by exposure to the sun's rays. The amount of photoaging that develops depends on: 1) a person's skin color and 2) their history of long-term or intense sun exposure. People with fair skin who have a history of sun exposure develop more signs of photoaging than those with dark skin. In the darkest skin, the signs of photoaging are usually limited to fine wrinkles and a mottled complexion.

Skin Againg as a result of extensive exposure to the sun
(Photo used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides)

Photoaging occurs over a period of years. With repeated exposure to the sun, the skin loses the ability to repair itself, and the damage accumulates. Scientific studies have shown that repeated ultraviolet (UV) exposure breaks down collagen and impairs the synthesis of new collagen. The sun also attacks our elastin. Sun-weakened skin ceases to spring back much earlier than skin protected from UV rays. Skin also becomes loose, wrinkled, and leathery much earlier with unprotected exposure to sunlight.

The deep wrinkles, age spots, and leathery skin indicate premature aging caused by years of unprotected exposure to the sun.

People who live in sun-intense areas, such as Florida or Arizona, can show signs of photoaging in their 20s. In fact, some people who live in sun-intense areas develop actinic keratoses (AKs) and skin cancer in their 20s.

While it may seem that the signs of photoaging appear overnight, they actually lie invisible beneath the surface of the skin for years. UV photography enables us to see the damage accumulating beneath the surface of the skin years before the signs of photoaging appear. Most people are surprised by the amount of photoaging that the UV camera shows. To see actual patient photographs that show: 1) what is visible to the naked eye and 2) what damage lies beneath the surface, visit: skincarephysicians.com

Facial Expressions. If you perform facial exercises to maintain a youthful-looking appearance, it is time to stop. Repetitive facial movements actually lead to fine lines and wrinkles. Each time we use a facial muscle, a groove forms beneath the surface of the skin, which is why we see lines form with each facial expression. As skin ages and loses its elasticity, the skin stops springing back to its line-free state, and these grooves become permanently etched on the face as fine lines and wrinkles.

Gravity. Gravity constantly pulls on our bodies. Changes related to gravity become more pronounced as we age. In our 50s, when the skin's elasticity declines dramatically, the effects of gravity become evident. Gravity causes the tip of the nose to droop, the ears to elongate, the eyelids to fall, jowls to form, and the upper lip to disappear while the lower lip becomes more pronounced.

Sleeping Positions. Resting your face on the pillow in the same way every night for years on end also leads to wrinkles. Called sleep lines, these wrinkles eventually become etched on the surface of the skin and no longer disappear when the head is not resting on the pillow. Women, who tend to sleep on their sides, are most likely to see these lines appear on their chin and cheeks. Men tend to notice these lines on the forehead since they usually sleep with the face pressed face down on the pillow. People who sleep on their backs do not develop these wrinkles since their skin does not lie crumpled against the pillow.

Smoking. Cigarette smoking causes biochemical changes in our bodies that accelerate aging. Research shows that a person who smokes 10 or more cigarettes a day for a minimum of 10 years is statistically more likely to develop deeply wrinkled, leathery skin than a nonsmoker. It also has been shown that people who smoke for a number of years tend to develop an unhealthy yellowish hue to their complexion. Additionally, a study conducted in 2002 showed that facial wrinkling, while not yet visible, can be seen under a microscope in smokers as young as 20.

These signs can be greatly diminished, and in some cases avoided, by stopping smoking. Even people who have smoked for many years, or smoked heavily at a younger age, show less facial wrinkling and improved skin tone when they quit smoking.

Skin Aging - Overview
Read about the causes and symptoms of intrinsic aging
Skin Aging - Prevention and Treatment

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955 Black Drive • Prescott, AZ 86305   |   3262 Windsong • Prescott Valley, AZ 86314
928-445-SKIN (7546)